The operations of the IRD and its partners are most often organised in the form of projects financed by public or private, national or international donors. Covering a broad spectrum, and most often favouring an interdisciplinary perspective, they allow to draw a picture of the expertise that IRD currently proposes and mobilizes in the country, and which has allowed it, since 1995, to have a significant impact on the sustainable development of the country and its research capacities.
Active projets in 2020
Project PRECIOUS - Predicting water flows through new earthworm functional groups, 2020-2023
The project PRECIOUS focuses on earthworm activity and soil hydraulic properties in Vietnam and France. It aims to (i) define functional groups based on soil water flow (soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention capacity) and (ii) test the complementarity of these groups to mitigate the impact of extreme events (monsoon rains and drought) on the dynamics of water. Functional groups will be defined in the laboratory from the eco-morpho-anatomical traits and the 3D burrow systems of 30 Megascolecidae in Vietnam and 30 Lumbricidae in France. The assemblage of functional groups will be carried out in lysimeters in Vietnam, where water flow (vertical and horizontal) will be monitored for 2 years, covering extreme climatic conditions.
Funded by ANR
PI: Nicolas Bottinelli
Partnership: Vietnam (VAST, VAAS, VNU) and France (INRAE, IRD)
Non-market traffic, personal relationships and social change in Vietnam, 2019 - 2021
This research program consists of a study of personal relationships in contemporary Vietnamese society through the non-market circulation of goods and services. The latter refers to all transfers that take place outside the market and official state flows and the realization of which is subject to the existence of a personal relationship. The approach consists in starting from transfers between people to grasp the forms of relationships involved and then going back to the regimes of social regulation which govern the circulation of resources and the organization of social relationships. The objective is to measure in fine the role and the place of non-market circulation and networks of personal relationships according to the social spaces considered and to see how they are linked to the state and market spheres.
COMPOSE Project Creating an Observatory for Measuring Plastic Occurrences in Society and Environment, 2019-2021
In 2015, Vietnam was ranked 4th in the world in terms of marine plastic pollution. Despite growing awareness of the dangers of this pollution, we know very little about the sources and pathways of marine plastics. The lack of interdisciplinary research on the subject results in a virtual absence of easily accessible data and scientific knowledge that could help the government in designing appropriate policies.
With this in mind, the IRD and its university partners (HCMUT, HAU) with the support of local authorities (DONRE HCMV), were pioneers in the implementation of scientific measures of the pollution of aquatic environments by plastics (Saigon River project) and scientific studies of informal plastic collection and recycling circuits in Hanoi (RecycUrbs project).
Birth of the project
The COMPOSE project was born in the continuity of this work, in partnership with the Embassy of France in Vietnam, engaged in an ambitious initiative under the label "Green Embassy", as well as civil society partners chosen for their commitment in this project (PRX, IUCN, ICISE). COMPOSE aims to improve the production and dissemination of scientific knowledge, in order to inform Vietnamese citizens and public decision-makers about the environmental pollution of plastics.
This project is led by the Embassy of France in Vietnam and IRD, in partnership with IUCN, PRX and ICISE
By combining scientific research, capacity building and awareness raising, the objective of this project is to obtain an accurate measurement of plastic pollution in Vietnam.
Eventually, the aim is to establish an observatory of the social and environmental dynamics of plastics in Vietnam, in order to generate data and knowledge for awareness-raising and public policy formulation.
The initial beneficiaries of the project will be the researchers and students trained within the network of Vietnamese laboratories identified by IRD. The ultimate beneficiaries, impacted via the networks and channels of the project partners (PRX, IUCN, ICISE and the French Embassy), will be the youth, government decision-makers, the general public and chambers of commerce.
Task 1: Support the production of reliable and freely accessible scientific data through the creation of a network of laboratories focused on the assessment of plastic from source to sea.
- Identification of a Vietnamese scientific network specialized in the interactions between society and the environment
- Equipment of 7 laboratories
- Training of researchers and technicians in the acquisition of social and environmental data
- Creation of an open database
Task 2: Strengthen national capacity to produce relevant scientific knowledge to understand society-environment interactions in the context of plastic pollution.
- Setting up a bibliographic watch
- Writing an experimental protocol
- Evaluation of the data produced by working groups and exchange of experiences
- Training of researchers in data criticism and scientific publication
- Production of reports, publications, scientific supports
Task 3: Enable the dissemination of knowledge in the form of information products tailored for government, the private sector and general public.
- Identification of final beneficiaries
- Identification of information dissemination needs of project partners
- Realization of information and awareness materials and tools
- Organization of awareness raising sessions
This project is specifically funded by the FSPI grant from the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs.
French Embassy in Vietnam site
Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD au Vietnam)
International Union for Conservation of Nature (UICN au Vietnam)
Paris Region Expertise (PRX au Vietnam)
International Centre for Interdisciplinary Science and Education (ICISE)
GEMMES VN - Socio-economic impacts of climate change in Vietnam and adaptation strategies, 2019-2021
The GEMMES VN project has been officially launched in Hanoi on the 8th of May, 2018 at the National Economics University with representatives of MONRE, the French Embassy and the Agence Française de Développement (AFD) from both Paris and Hanoi.
This project is an important focus of cooperation between France and Vietnam on the occasion of the 45th anniversary of diplomatic relations between the two countries, within the framework for implementing the Paris Climate Agreement in order to develop long-term strategies for countries facing climate change impacts. The project has a long-term focus, aiming to better assess the social and economic impacts of climate change, strengthen the country's capacity to adapt to inevitable climate change and to enhance its own resilience.
Objectives of the project are:
- Assess the impact and damage scenarios for Viet Nam under possible climate scenarios, and in particular in the cases of a global average temperature increase of 1.5°C; 2°C and 3°C.
- Analyze the economic, social and political opportunities and challenges potentially induced by climate change in Viet Nam. Understand the perceptions of and responses to environmental change specific to Vietnamese society, as well as the opportunities for investment and sectoral scaling up in adaptation sectors.
In view of these objectives, the project was built around 6 workpackages of research or activity:
A first workpackage (WP1) will deal with all climate related datasets and projections. It will build detailed spatial projections of different needed climate variables, taking into account the different sources of uncertainty on future climate (different possible Representative Concentration Pathways, but also the probability of extreme events).
Three workpackages (WP2, WP3 and WP4) will concentrate on the estimation of response functions of economic, social and regional variables to climate change or climate variability. WP2 will focus on the impact of climate change on agriculture, energy (demand and supply), of extreme events on infrastructure, as well as adaptation strategies. WP3 will deal with revenue inequalities, migrations (and labor mobility), health and nutrition. WP4 will have a focused climate-specific approach on parts of the Mekong delta, parts of the coastal region around Hoi An, and the marine protected area of Nha Trang.
A fifth workpackage (WP5) will deal with the macroeconomic impacts of climate change and adaptation strategies. It will use an aggregation of response functions from WP2, WP3 and WP4 in order to simulate the macroeconomic impact at an aggregate level according to different climate change scenarios computed in WP1. It will thus be able to picture the damages of Vietnam according to different average global temperature.
A sixth workpackage (WP6) will analyze the question of governance of climate change and adaptation. A socio-anthropological approach to resilience will bring much needed research on adaptation behaviours which empirical studies or modelling alone could not describe.
Partners of the project are:
- L’Agence française de Développement (AFD)
- Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MoNRE) with the representative of Department of Climate Change (DCC)
- University of Science and Technology of Hanoi(USTH)
- Institute of Research in Economics, Environment and Data Science (Facebook of IREEDS)
- National Economics University (NEU)
- Toulouse School of Economics (TSE)
- Vietnam Initiative for Energy Transition (VietSE)
- Mekong Development Research Institute (MDRI)
- Can Tho University (CTU)
- Le Centre national de la recherché scientifique (CNRS)
- University of Social Sciences and Humanities (USSH)
- L’Ecole Francaise D’Extreme-Orient (EFEO)
Océanographie Côtière au Vietnam, 2015 - 2021
The LEGOS develops research projects in Vietnam since 2007 and participates to the new University of Sciences and Technology of Hanoi (USTH) for its department Water-Environment-Oceanography since 2009. In this context, IRD supported a « Chaire Croisee » (crossing post) in 2010 and 2011 between the Hanoi University of Science (VNU-HUS) and LEGOS.
Objectives and organisation
The activities of LEGOS in Vietnam started with the HAIPHONG project (EC2CO, 2008-2011). They continue with several research projects in coastal oceanography, from the local scale (estuary, bay, beach) to a regional scale. Our scientific objectives are:
- To improve knowledge of estuarine and coastal hydro-sedimentary processes (comprehension and formulation of erosion, aggregation and transport of suspended particles).
- To develop tools adapted for observation and analysis, in particular in marine optics and remote sensing.
- To model and understand functioning, variability at various scales (from hours to decades) and the long-term evolution of oceanic dynamics in the South China East Sea and in the Gulf of Tonkin.
- To study the response of sediment transport and marine pelagic ecosystems to dynamics and to its variability.
We jointly use in-situ measurements, satellite observations and numerical modeling in an integrated step. This makes it possible to approach the various components of the marine system and their interactions: oceanic and atmospheric dynamics, sediments, ecosystems. At sub-meso or meso-scale, hydrodynamic simulations are carried out with the regional ROMS model, coupled with atmospheric, biogeochemical or sediment transport models, according to the processes and study areas. In littoral zones, more adapted models will be employed.
CARE-RESCIF Saigon River, bas Mékong : Hydrodynamique sédimentaire, transport des polluants, vulnérabilité, 2015 - 2020
The Asian Research Center on Water was created at the initiative of RESCIF (Network of Excellence of the Francophonie Engineering Sciences) in Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and benefits from a strong international momentum with French, Swiss, Canadian and Belgian partners. Headed by Phan Thi San Ha (HCMUT-VNU) and N. Gratiot (IRD), it hosts four IRD scientists ( E. Strady, P. Marchesiello, N. Gratiot, J. Aimé).
The research activities aim at strengthening the Saigon River and lower Mekong studies capacity, using field measurements, laboratory analyses and numeric simulation tools. We also focus particularly on the development of tools for environmental monitoring and risks assessment.
Suivi à long terme et modélisation d’un bassin versant agricole expérimentale au Vietnam dans la cadre MSEC (Multi-Scale Environmental Changes), 1998 - 2020
The influence of stability or variability of environmental conditions (physical, hydrological and chemical) and their impact on the structure of microbial communities and biodiversity is one of the most debated questions in ecology. An understanding of these factors and of the impacts of shifting human land use patterns on both small (field size) and larger scales under the anticipated future global change is essential for the development of effective and sustainable management of soil and water in the agricultural sector. There is currently no experimental demonstration of how changes in environmental factors, such as soil degradation, impact ecosystem functioning and productivity and, ultimately, on human health and safety provision. The UMR 242 iEES-Paris studies in Southeast Asia the impact of agricultural activities and practices on soil productivity within sloping lands; soil quality in different geographic locations (slope, terrace, flat, delta) and their associated aquatic systems (small lakes and hydropower dams) to mitigate Climate Change (CC) and Rapid Land-use Change (LUC). Research is focused on the transfer of matter, living and nonliving, organic and inorganic, via processes of exceptional rain events, floods, erosion, leaching and river transport. This research relies on an integrative, multidisciplinary group that use a set of biogeochemical and molecular microbial techniques, combined with agronomy, ecology, hydrology and modeling to provide solid answers to the fundamental question: how an ecosystem responds to changes in agricultural practices under climate change force? The originality of this research program on agro-ecology is the diversity of study scales and the diversity of experimental methods: the artificial world represented by the mesocosm to the real world in pilot farms and an experimental watershed instrumented and monitored for 10 years (MSEC project as environmental observatory).
Researchers participating in the project
BOTTINELLI Nicolas, biophysicien des sols, depuis 2015.
CLEMENT Floriane, sciences sociales, 2005-2008.
HENRI-DES-TUREAUX Thierry, hydrologue, 2006-2010.
JANEAU Jean-Louis, hydroécologue, 2011-2015.
JOUQUET Pascal, biologiste pédologue, 2006-2011.
LAISSUS Mathieu, agronome, 2009-2010.
MAEGHT Jean-Luc, biophysicien des sols, depuis 2015.
MASSELIS Guillaume, VIA, environmental engineer, depuis 2018
ORANGE Didier, hydrologue géochimiste, 2001-2013.
PODWOJEWSKI Pascal, pédologue géochimiste, 2002-2006.
ROCHELLE-NEWALL Emma, microbiologiste biogéochimiste, 2011-2013
Since 1995, IRD has worked on many projects with its Vietnamese partners. The main completed projects are:
Plant resistance to pests and diseases (UMR 186 IPME), 2012-2017
The major development challenges concern food security, the fight against poverty, ecological intensification and climate change. There are two main lines of action: (a) plant improvement and protection, (b) integrative biology and genomics for crop improvement.
In this context, genetic control, based on varietal creation/improvement, occupies a privileged place. It makes it possible to increase the natural genetic diversity of available resistances by introducing genes from wild plants into cultivated lines, or even by pyramiding R genes, and to reduce the use of pesticides, thus contributing to the reduction of environmental damage and the cost of agricultural production. UMR 186 RPB is strongly involved in teaching at USTH, with the co-direction of 3 teaching modules, and has developed a network of plant pathologists in Asia, "Surveillance Network on Rice Health in South East Asia" (SUNRISE), involving researchers from IRRI, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
In Vietnam, UMR RPB leads four projects.
Project RICE’S EMERGING VIRUSES
Goals: Characterization of the viral diversity of RGSV (Rice grassy stunt virus) and RRSV (Rice ragged stunt virus), understanding of intra-host relations in mixed infection conditions; Identification of resistant rice cultivars.
Partners: PPRI, UMR, MIVEGEC
Funding :GDRI CNRS (2009-2012), BEST-IRD grant (2009-2012), PHCHoa Sen LotusMAE (2011-2012), LMI RICE -IRD (2011-2014), PPR SELTAR, Emerging Team operation.
Goal: Development of a new resistance strategy by RNAi (RNA interference) to fight against the RGSV and RRSV viruses.
Partners :LMI RICE, PPRI.
Funding :IRD thesis grant, operation of the Effectors-Targets Team and LMI RICE.
Goal: Study of the diversity of mandatory plant-parasitic nematodes (Meloidogynespp.) subordinated to rice (Malyna Suong's thesis project, ARTS-IRD 2014-16 grant) and the plants’ defence mechanisms against nematodes.
Partners :HUA and LMI Rice (Vietnam), RUA (Cambodia), MOAF (Laos), IRRI (Philippines) and JHI (Scotland).
Funding: IRD (ARTS) thesis grant, LMI RICE operation, BioAsia (2013-2014), Effectors-Targets Team operation, British Council (2014).
- Characterization of rice susceptibility genes to Xanthomonasoryzaepv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of rice vascular bacteriosis.
- Identification of some plant genes that are potentially direct targets of Xoo TAL effectors. Their functional analysis constitutes Tuan Tu Tran's thesis project (2012-2015).
Funding: Thesis grant from Vietnam (VIED 322) complemented with GRiSP support.
Biotechnologies and agricultural markets in Vietnam: intellectual property, quality standards and collectives actions
Since 1994, Vietnam’s Government decided to make biotechnologies a tool of scientific and economic transformation of the country. In agriculture, the fulfilment of this objective is now a reality in the farmers’ fields since the Ministry of environment and natural resources issued the first approvals for commercial GM crops in 2014. In this context, this program aims to observe the impacts of biotechnologies on agricultural markets in Vietnam.
To address these issues, the program is hosting by the LMI Rice, and will focused onto two important market drivers of plant innovation: intellectual property rights and quality standards.
Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are tools for private appropriation, but more and more academic works show that IPRs on living forms can’t be an exclusive property but must be rethought as abundle of rights, given different usage rights to different users. Nevertheless, patents often give exclusive rights to their holders that limit (some say threaten) access to new genetic traits. This is an important stake that the project will handle in Vietnam with a particular attention to thecollective actionsof scientists and breeders to protect their innovations while keeping genetic resources and knowledge inopen access.
Mandatory and voluntary quality standards have also strong effects on resource appropriation and market concentration especially in seeds markets. They potentially jeopardize access to market to small farmers who could not reach the standard requirements, while new emerging large-scale commercial enterprises (with more capital, more knowledge and more technology) seem to be in a better position for implementing the new standards of biosafety and environmental sustainability. But, as in the case of IPRs, it’s very important to study the differentcollective actionsof different stakeholders to produce fair norms, accepted by all users willing to defend the quality and reputation of their products, not only in organic or fair-trade value chains, but also in safety food certification.
Agricultural Genetics Institute(AGI), Pham Van Dong, Co Nhue, Tulem Hanoi, Vietnam;
University of Science and Technology of Hanoi(USTH), 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi.
- Assigment of Frédéric Thomas to AGI, in the premises of the LMI Rice from the 1st September 2015 until the 31th August 2017
- Ongoing operational budget of UMR Paloc and LMI Rice
- ANR Govenpro (The history of the environmental governance by means of property) coordinated by Fabien Locher (CNRS) and Frédéric Thomas (IRD)
Role of viruses in coral health (UMR 248 MARBEC), 2012-2016
Coral ecosystems have declined dramatically over the past 30 years under the combined effect of global warming and anthropogenic pressure. Our work aims at understanding the role of micro-organisms (especially viruses and bacteria) that reside on the surface of corals, and determining their sensitivity to environmental disturbances.
Current activities and results
Several experimental studies in situ on various coral species (Ha Long and Nha Trang Bays) have shown that coral mucus supports extremely abundant viral and bacterial communities (> 107 /mL mucus), whose activity and diversity appears to be very specific and distinct from those of organisms in the water column. Work is now focused on elucidating whether viruses are likely to protect corals from opportunistic infections or whether, on the contrary, they promote their decline.
PATRICIA(2014-2017) : The Viral Paradox in Coral Ecosystems: The Case of Nha Trang Bay (Vietnam) (PI :Y Bettarel, Total Foundation)
DALIDA(2015-2017)Ecogenomics of viruses in the coral reefs of Phu Quoc and Con Dao (Vietnam)(PI Y Bettarel, PHC Hoa Sen)
IMER, IO, NIHE, IBT
LMI RICE « Rice Functionnal Genomics and Plant Biotechnology », 2011 - 2015
Vietnam is currently the second largest exporter of rice in the world. As such, rice cultivation in Vietnam is of capital importance, for the country itself, but also because it greatly contributes to ensuring food security in Asian countries. The two major rice production basins in Vietnam, the Mekong and Red River deltas, are particularly threatened by global warming. This is reflected on the one hand by a significant drop in the level of these rivers creating a lack of water which can create a drought in certain places; on the other hand a rise in sea level causes soil salinization. Rice cultivation in Vietnam is also greatly affected by the regular emergence of new viruses, causing very large yield losses, against which no phytosanitary treatment is effective. The adaptation of rice cultivation to less irrigated agrosystems also suggests an increase in the problems linked to infections by nematodes which also cause large drops in yield and can also be vectors of viral diseases.
The first objective of this laboratory is to address fundamental research questions in order to help develop rice varieties capable of producing better under stressful conditions. Issues related to resistance to biotic stress will be treated in association with researchers from the UMR RPB (UM2 / IRD) and the Hanoi Plant Protection Institute (PPRI, VAAS).
The second objective is to make LMI an open platform in plant biotechnology and functional genomics to facilitate the emergence of new collaborative projects. We therefore hope to not only make the LMI a structuring unity for research at local level, but also between the French scientific community supported by the USTH consortium and this region of the world via the collaboration network that the IAG maintains with the other countries of Southeast Asia in particular.
Finally, the third objective of the LMI is to contribute to the training of Vietnamese students both at the master's level and at the doctoral level. The establishment of the LMI in partnership with the University of Sciences and Techniques of Hanoi (USTH), offers an exceptional opportunity to set up an ambitious research and teaching operation in Southeast Asia thanks to a partnership on the one hand, bringing together the two main UMR UM2 / IRD working in the plant sciences of Montpellier with several Agronomic Research Institutes of the VAAS (IAG, PPRI) and the USTH (see general diagram).
The development of these projects makes it possible to federate within the LMI a wide range of skills in functional genomics of rice from researchers in Montpellier, in addition to the skills of Vietnamese researchers in biotechnology, genetics and pathology of rice. The concomitant realization of these projects will make it possible to release, in scientific terms, an added value at the interfaces: comparative study of the processes controlling branching at the level of the panicle and root, comparative study of the mechanisms involved in the constitutive development or in response to the nematodes of roots, use of silencing viral suppressant proteins to discover new micro RNAs and genes involved in the development of panicles or roots, optimization of vectors to induce strong and specific silencing in the plant.
Activities and results
The main objective of the LMI RICE is to develop original research in comparative functional genomics aimed at identifying major genes involved in the rice productivity and resistance to stress. These choices must answer to the priorities expressed by our Vietnamese partners and must ultimately help provide solutions to the main challenges of rice growing in Vietnam. This research is based on complementary expertise in functional genomics, molecular biology, genetic engineering, pathology and genetics possessed by the researchers involved in the UMR DIADE and RPB, the IAG and the PPRI. One of the original features of this project is also to rely on a comparative approach using the natural diversity existing within several rice species (wild, O. barthii, O. rufipogon and cultivated, O. glaberrima and O. sativa ), of Vietnamese rice population (North Vietnam has the advantage of being at the heart of the domestication zone of O. sativa) to discover new genes and allelic forms of interest. These approaches must lead to improvement actions, either through breeding programs or through genetic engineering which will be relayed by our Vietnamese partners. This research will also advance fundamental knowledge about the mechanisms of development and resistance of plants to pests, as well as the processes of evolution and domestication of rice. Four entry points have been selected, two relate to developmental processes, two relate to resistance to pests. The fact that the pathogens studied deregulate the genes involved in developmental control makes it possible to identify original scientific interfaces specific to this LMI project.
Panicle branching and productivity
The number of grains per panicle is one of the major characteristics that determine productivity. It depends on the branching level of the panicle. Research approaches for QTL in populations in segregation between different varieties of O. sativa have already made it possible to isolate some genes and their allelic variants involved in the ramification of the rice panicle (Chuck and Bortiri; Miura et al .; Doust, 2007; Barazesh and McSteen, 2008). To isolate new ones, we propose to use natural variability within the genus Oryza for this characteristic: there is indeed a gradation in the level of branching of the panicle between wild species (O. Barthii, O. rufipogon) sparsely branched, African cultivated (O. glaberrima), intermediate, and Asian cutilvated (O. sativa), where we find varieties with moderate to very branched panicles. Panicle development will be studied from the morpho-cytological point of view on the one hand and on the other hand through the structural and functional diversity of a certain number of candidate genes orthologous to genes already identified in other plants during our own work of differentiating meristems at the level of inflorescences (EST bank of rice inflorescence) (Thompson and Hake, 2009). Expression patterns correlated with meristem differentiation events at the panicle level are studied. The allelic diversity of these genes will be sought in a collection of rice varieties with contrasting panicle architectures in order to identify allelic forms associated with significant panicle branching. The functional implication of these allelic forms in the control of panicle development will be validated by functional genomics approaches. The alleles thus identified may be used in the selection programs.
Ramification of the root system and tolerance to water stress
A dense and deep root system allows the plant to make better use of the soil's water resources and to tolerate temporary water stress. The root system of rice is mainly composed of adventitious roots originating at the base of the stem (Coudert et al., 2010). Screening of insertion mutant banks has made it possible to identify 3 genes controlling the differentiation the strength and adventitious of roots in rice, one of which codes for the transcription factor CRL1 (CrownRootLess1) (Inukai et al., 2005; Liu et al ., 2005). In this study we propose to characterize new genes involved in the differentiation and development of nodal roots by functionally characterizing the genes regulated by CRL1 and by studying their genetic diversity in a collection of rice varieties with contrasting root architectures (rice varieties wild, cultivated African and Asian especially Vietnamese). Comparative transcriptome studies have identified dozens of genes regulated by CRL1 (our work). We propose to identify among these genes those which constitute direct targets of CRL1 and which are involved in the development of adventitious roots by several complementary approaches: QPR analysis of the expression of these genes in response to auxin (which induced CRL1) in WT and the mutant crl1, analysis of the expression domain by in situ hybridization at the level of the stem bases, screening of insertion mutants with regard to root development. These approaches are expected to clarify the gene regulatory network controlled by CRL1 and to identify new genes for adventitious root development. The allelic diversity of the most interesting genes will be studied in a rice variety population with regard to the variability of the architecture of the root system. We thus hope to identify allelic forms associated with characteristics of density of the root system favorable to a better tolerance to water stress, which could be introduced in the selection programs (Sanguineti et al., 2007; Zhu et al., 2008 ).
Mechanism of rice resistance to viruses
In recent years several new viral strains have appeared in Vietnam and greatly affect rice growing (Du et al., 2005). Virus resistance genes are infrequent and often quickly bypassed. We therefore wish to develop research aimed at developing, through genetic engineering, multiple and lasting resistances against viral infections (Shimizu et al., 2009). This first requires a study and knowledge of the diversity of these viruses and their biology (in particular their mechanisms of resistance to RNA interference). In this project we will mainly focus on two viruses particularly prevalent in Vietnam: the Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV, Tenuivirus) and the Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV, Phytoreovirus). Strains of these viruses will be collected in North and South Vietnam and then sequenced. The variable and conserved areas of the genome of these viruses will thus be identified (Fargette et al., 2008). These studies will identify areas of the viral genome to be targeted by RNA interference. RNA interference strategies will be implemented in rice by transgenesis using simple constructs or vectors targeting multiple viral genes simultaneously (Curtis and Grossniklaus, 2003; Lacombe et al., 2008). The induced resistances will be analyzed for their effectiveness and their durability. The resistances thus induced can be pyramidized and introduced by introgression in different varieties.
Resistance of rice to nematodes
Nematodes cause heavy yield losses in rice, especially in conditions of lack of water. The aim is to specify the major causes, both on the nematode side and on the plant side, involved in establishing the interaction, in order to ultimately inactivate them by RNA interference. Using compatible (O. sativa) and incompatible (O. glaberrima) interaction systems, metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches have identified key causes secreted by the nematode and pave the way for the identification of genes, involved in the plant in the control of modification of root development allowing the differentiation of giant cells necessary for the life and reproduction of the nematode (Bellafiore et al., 2008; Bellafiore and Briggs, 2010). The exact role of these causes and these root development genes will be studied by direct and reverse genetics approaches (Rosso et al., 2005). Finally, the nucleotide variability of the genes encoding the most important cause will be studied in a collection of isolates of nematode strains collected in Vietnam and linked to the virulence of nematodes. This knowledge should allow the design of new strategies using induction of RNA interference in the plant against key genes involved in the virulence of nematodes, in order to create varieties of rice resistant to them (Huang et al., 2006).
Teaching and training
Upon his arrival in Vietnam Pascal Gantet was involved in the start of the first year of the Master Biotechnology-Pharmacology of the USTH for which he is responsible. He coordinated the implementation of the timetable of the 17 successive French missionaries and in relation with Dr. Quyen Dinh Thi of the Vietnamese speakers. A strong point of this activity was the reception and the realization within the LMI RICE, in accordance with the mission of the LMI to support training in the South, practical work of biotechnology and plant genomics (25 hours in all approximately).
IRD, UMR 232 DIADE
Pr. Pascal GANTET, UMR 232 DIADE
Pr. DO Nang Vinh, NKLPCB, IAG
Le Thi Van Anh, PhD student UM2, UMR 232 DIADE,
Pré Martial, ATER UM2
TA Kim Nhung, PhD student UM2, UMR 232 DIADE,
Nguyen Thanh Duc, PhD student, UMR 186 RPB
Nguyen Vu Phong, PhD Student, UMR 186 RPB
L’essor des villages de métier et le processus de périurbanisation dans le delta du fleuve Rouge (UMR 196 CEPED) 2008-2011
Hà Nội est restée confinée dans un espace limité jusqu’au début des années 1990. Depuis lors, on assiste à un processus de « rattrapage urbain » pour qu’elle obtienne le statut de métropole internationale. Cette extension urbaine s’opère sur des marges rurales, densément peuplées aux activités productives diversifiées. Plus de 500 villages ont développé des activités artisanales et semi-industrielles. Ces activités très variées (vannerie, métallurgie, textile, transformations de produits agricoles) très consommatrices de main-d’œuvre s’opèrent dans un milieu résidentiel déjà très sollicité pour l’habitat. De plus, une ceinture verte spécialisée dans le maraîchage approvisionne la capitale et occupe une population nombreuse.
Objectif du programme
Depuis 2009, dans le cadre de l’ANR « les suds », nous étudions dans quelles conditions (gouvernance locale, foncières et de législation environnementale) Hà Nôi peut-elle s’étendre sur ses marges périurbaines et intégrer les villages de métier en maintenant leurs dynamiques économiques et démographiques fondées sur la pluri-activité et la flexibilité de l’embauche d’une main-d’œuvre nombreuse. Comment l’intervention de nouveaux acteurs dans le développement urbain (promoteurs privés, vietnamiens et étrangers) risque de remettre en cause la pluri-activité liée à l’agriculture et donc la capacité d’embauche d’une main-d’œuvre pléthorique dans les villages de métier, et la politique de protection contre les inondations que l’Etat vietnamien avait mise en place depuis plusieurs siècles ? Comment les villageois expropriés se reconvertissent-ils, ou tout au moins pallient la perte de leurs terres agricoles ? Le tourisme culturel peut-il être un moyen de revaloriser ces villages et leurs activités ?
Dans un contexte politique où les autorités nationales et provinciales s’interrogent sur les modalités d’un contrôle de l’expansion de Hanoi et des moyens pour maintenir la population rurale sur place, le thème des villages de métier est d’actualité et une évaluation des capacités des villages de métier à contenir la population rurale et à dynamiser le développement économique dans les campagnes surpeuplées, dans un contexte environnemental soutenable, parait nécessaire.
ANR PERISUD « Dynamiques territoriales à la périphérie des métropoles des Suds ».
IRD, UMR 196 CEPED
Accès et partage des ressources phytogénétiques au Vietnam (UMR 208 PALOC), 2006-2011
La conservation des ressources génétiques est devenue un enjeu d’échelle planétaire sous les effets conjugués d’une érosion génétique accélérée, du développement des biotechnologies et de la mise en place de droits de propriété intellectuelle sur le vivant. Depuis la Convention sur la diversité biologique et les accords ADPIC, l’accès à ces ressources et le partage des bénéfices qui en découlent (pour les industries utilisatrices) avec les populations autochtones (qui ont participé à leur conservation) sont devenus des sujets très débattus entre les pays développés et en développement.
Objectifs des recherches
Comment ces contraintes environnementales globales et la gouvernance internationale de la biodiversité se traduisent localement pour les populations paysannes ? L’entrée récente du Vietnam dans l’OMC l’a conduit à développer un droit des brevets sur les ressources génétiques nationales et des droits pour les obtenteurs de variétés végétales nouvelles. Nous étudions les impacts économiques et sociaux de ces nouvelles réglementations ; il s’agit d’en mesurer les effets en termes de conservation de la biodiversité agricole ex situ (banque de gènes) et in situ (gestion participative paysanne, etc.).
Le programme ABS au Vietnam vise à collecter, diffuser et échanger toutes les informations (statistiques, rapports, textes internationaux, réglementations nationales, travaux académiques…) susceptibles d’éclairer les décideurs vietnamiens dans l’élaboration des politiques publiques de gestion des ressources génétiques agricoles.
Frédéric Thomas, UMR 208 PALOC
Dao The Anh, CASRAD
Éducation et politiques d’éducation-formation (UMR 196 CEPED), 2006-2011
Si l’éducation et la formation sont des priorités pour le pays depuis la lutte pour l’indépendance, l’impact positif de l’éducation sur la réduction de la pauvreté, qui semble faire l’objet d’un consensus international, a entrainé l’inscription des politiques nationales d’éducation dans les différents objectifs internationaux (EPT, ODM, etc.) et un renforcement de l’importance du respect des engagements pris au niveau international. Pourtant, les études de terrain montrent que nombre d’enfants sont encore exclus de la scolarisation dès le primaire à cause de leur pauvreté.
Objectif de recherche
Analyser la modification des contours de la politique d’éducation/formation au Viêt-nam, et de l’articulation entre les politiques de lutte contre la pauvreté et les politiques éducatives. Il s’agit d’analyser l’impact de ces changements sur la situation éducative, et la manière dont les familles, en particulier les familles pauvres, y réagissent.
Recherche en cours
Les résultats obtenus permettent de montrer que lutter contre la pauvreté ne consiste pas seulement à mettre en œuvre des programmes ciblés sur certains des groupes de population ou zones géographiques, mais implique une prise en compte des obstacles qu’elle constitue à tous les échelons de l’administration du système éducatif. Des enquêtes qualitatives ont été réalisées dans des communes/quartiers des provinces d’An Giang, Ca Mau, Diên Biên, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh Ville, Khanh Hoa, Nam Dinh, et Soc Trang entre 2007 et 2010.
Nolwen HENAFF, UMR 196 CEPED
Marie-France LANGE, UMR 196 CEPED
TRAN Thi Kim Thuan, VNIES