If the assignment of French researchers to their Vietnamese partners is still the main way for the IRD to support the creation of sustainable networks, the institute also proposes complementary mechanisms, both individual and collective.
From an individual point of view, mobility grants allow Vietnamese researchers to benefit from long stays in France to build or consolidate their own networks. From a collective point of view, the IRD supports the organization of events, in Vietnam, allowing a strong interaction and networking of Vietnamese and international researchers. Since 2017, the GDRI program also supports these scientific networks on a regional or international scale. Finally, since 2019, an additional mechanism, called PSF Sud, offers recurrent support for the organization of summer schools or training courses that also allow the creation of sustainable scientific networks.
GDRI SOOT&SEA - Impact of Black Carbon in South East Asia (UMR MIO), 2018-2020)
Black Carbon (BC; or soot) is the product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels and biomass, and is co-emitted with other aerosols. BC and co-emitted aerosols make up the majority of fine particle air pollution, and is the leading environmental cause of poor health and premature death. BC also impacts climate by: (i) exerting a direct net positive radiative forcing at the top-of-the atmosphere equivalent to ~40% of the current radiative forcing due to the CO2 greenhouse effect, (ii) influencing cloud formation/properties and rainfall patterns, and (iii) reducing the albedo of the cryosphere when deposited on ice and snow, hence increasing melting rate. Owing to its impacts on health and climate, BC is receiving growing attention. Another impact of BC, much less known than its direct impacts on health and climate, is related to its introduction in the ocean. The atmospheric lifetime of BC is short (<1 month), and BC eventually deposits on the surface of lands and oceans. In addition to the direct deposition on the surface of the ocean, large amounts of BC deposited on land are washed out by rainfall and transported by rivers, hence ultimately ending up in the ocean. The estimated total flux of BC to the ocean via atmospheric deposition and fluvial transport is equivalent to the estimated emission rate. Considering that most BC ends up in the ocean, it is important to understand how this material impacts marine systems. Because BC particles are highly porous and surface-active, with a high density, they can sorb dissolved compounds, increase aggregation processes and ballast sinking particulate organic matter. Because they bring nutrients and contaminants to the surface ocean, and modify the structuring of the environment at the microscale, BC may alter phyto- and bacterio-plankton composition and activity. As a result, BC may alter the efficiency of the biological carbon pump, and lead to either a positive or a negative feedback on the atmospheric concentration of CO2. In addition, BC can sorb contaminants in seawater and either introduce them into the food chain, hence alter food security, or export them to the seafloor, hence cleanse the water column. In order to determine the actual impacts of BC, it is necessary to obtain accurate emission and deposition rates. At present, there are still large uncertainties related to the magnitude of the impact of atmospheric BC due to difficulties in obtaining accurate emission inventories, and in particular in South East Asia (SEA). For example, current climate models systematically underrate aerosol absorption by 3-fold when compared to observations, which is attributed to the underestimation of BC emissions. Since estimates of the atmospheric flux of BC to the ocean are derived from emission estimates, they may be underestimated as well. In order to determine the effects of BC on marine resources and biogeochemistry, it is also necessary to understand how BC interacts with biological/chemical/physical marine processes.
SOOT-SEA is organized around a targeted theme (i.e., BC), calling for interdisciplinarity between atmospheric and marine sciences, and bridging intertwined climate, ecosystems and health issues. The main scientific objectives are:
- to determine the impact of BC on the biological carbon pump and its feedback on atmospheric CO2 concentration,
- to determine the impact of BC on the transfer of contaminants to the marine food web,
- to improve BC emissions inventories in South East Asia and determine ocean input, by establishing a regional monitoring network for measuring concentrations and characteristics of BC in the atmospheric, riverine and marine compartments,
- to develop an atmosphere / ocean modeling framework describing the climate, biogeochemical and health impacts of BC.
In addition to its scientific objectives, SOOT&SEA also aims to:
- stimulate the development of research projects,
- promote South-South and South-North interactions,
- enable regional coordination of a transboundary issue with global implications,
- provide the international visibility required to engage with national and international organizations, stakeholders and policy makers to mobilize funding.
In order to contribute to the emergence of sustainable and autonomous research structures on the issue of BC in South East Asia, we are developing a platform for the collection of BC and its co-pollutants to feed the partners of the South and the North with BC-material (naturally occurring atmospheric fine particles) for joint experiments, as well as a regional monitoring network (Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, and Laos) for measuring concentrations and characteristics of BC in atmospheric, river, and marine compartments.
- BLACKISH (IRD, 2012) : Impact of Black Carbon on nutrient, particle and microbial dynamics of the pelagic ecosystem in Halong Bay (PI : X. Mari-MIO).
- CARPEDYEM (PHC Hoa Sen-Lotus, 2012-2013) : Impacts du carbone-suie sur les processus de l’écosystème pélagique en baie d’Ha Long (PI : X. Mari-MIO).
- IMPALA (MOST, 2012-2013) : Impact of Black Carbon on the pelagic microbial ecosystem and environment in Ha Long Bay (PI : Chu Van Thuoc-IMER).
- COME&SEA (JEAI-AIRD, 2012-2014) : Biogeochemistry and ecology of tropical coastal marine scosystems in South East Asia (PIs : Chu Van Thuoc-IMER & X. Mari-MIO).
- SOOT (INSU-EC2CO, 2013) : Impact of soot deposition on microbial dynamics in the Surface Microlayer of Ha Long Bay, Vietnam (PI : X. Mari-MIO).
- BLACK BLOOM (BIO-Asia/IRD, 2016-2017) : Black Carbon observations for its air and marine impacts in South East Asia (PIs : B. Guinot-LA & X. Mari-MIO).
- DECAY (Action Sud MIO, 2018) : Microbial degradation of Black Carbon in the coast of Vietnam (PI : M. Benavides-MIO).
- IN BLACK (ANR-MRSEI, 2017-2018) : International Network for the study of the impact of BLACK carbon on the biological carbon pump (PI : X. Mari-MIO).
- SOOT&SEA (IRD GDRI-Sud, 2018-2021) : Impact of Black Carbon in South East Asia (PI : X. Mari-MIO).
- SOOT&SEA (Fondation Air Liquide, en évaluation) : Impact of Black Carbon in South East Asia (PI : X. Mari-MIO).
- BLACKNET (ANR-PRC, en évaluation) : Inverse modelling of BLACK Carbon emissions using real time data from NETworked sensors (PI : B. Guinot-LA).
- SOOT-SEA (EU-H2020, en évaluation) : Impact of Black Carbon on the Biological Carbon Pump (PI : X. Mari-MIO).
PSF-Sud ASIAME (2020-2022)
ASIAME (South-East ASIa School of Aquatic Microbial Ecology) themed schools aim to provide young ecologists in South-East Asia with a thorough education in both the theoretical and the methodological aspects of aquatic microbial ecology (cultures, taxonomy, physiology, metabolism and genomics). They also aim to allow the regional scientific community to network in order to encourage interactions and the emergence of research collaborations between countries in South and South-East Asia.
PSF-Sud HGP-MEKONG (2020-2022)
The problems associated with underground water in South Cambodia and Vietnam, which share the Mekong Delta region, are linked to the integrated strategy for managing water resources in rural and urban areas.
Summer schools and training sessions
Regional Social Sciences Summer University, Tam Dao Days
Each year since 2007, the "Tam Đảo School in Social Sciences” (JTD) has been offering training in analytical methodologies of the social sciences – geography, economics, statistics, socio-anthropology, history, etc. – to nearly 100 participants from Southeast Asia (students, university lecturers, researchers, civil servants, development practitioners). The training takes place both at the Việt Nam Academy of Social Sciences (VASS in Hà Nội) and in residence at the Tam Đảo hill station close to the capital, or in another university in Central or South Việt Nam.
CBID - Computional Biology For Infectious Diseases
The CBID summer school is designed to provide students, researchers and professionals working on infectious diseases with basic concepts and hands-on experience in quantitative analyses of high throughput data. It targets people coming from the health sciences and wishing to acquire skills in quantitative analyzes or people coming from the modeling sciences and wishing to develop applications in health.
Researchers who have benefited from a BEST or mobility grant
HO Bich Hai
Organisme : Institut of Information Technology (VAST)
Sujet : Metagenomic approach to characterization of human intestinal microbiome and clinical medicine translation.
Coordinateur IRD : Jean-Daniel Zucker
Durée : 2 séjours de 6 mois (à partir de février 2015)
NGUYEN Thanh Nho
Organisme : University of Science (VNU)
Sujet: Arsenic distribution and speciation in the mangrove sediments of the Mekong delta (Vietnam).
Coordinateur IRD : Cyril Marchand
Durée : 3 séjours de 3 mois (à partir de février 2015)
- NGO Quoc Anh
TRINH Anh Duc
Organisme : Institut de Chimie (VAST)
Sujet : Training period on the environnemental applications of oxygen micro-electrodes, UMR 238 ECOSYM
Coordinateur IRD : Didier Orange
Durée : 01/06-30/06/2011 (1 mois)
DUONG Thanh Nghi
Organisme : Institut de l'Environnement et des Ressources Marines de Hai Phong (IMER/VAST)
Sujet : Organotin compounds in the Bach Dang estuary system : a seasonal comparison, UMR 238 ECOSYM
Coordinateur IRD : Emma Rochelle-Newall
Durée : 01/03-30/06/2011 (3 mois), Montpellier
LUU Bich Ngoc
Organisme : Institut de Recherche Population et Sociétés (IPSS)
Sujet : La famille vietnamienne face au VIH/Sida, UMR 151 LPED
Coordinateur IRD : Myriam de Loenzien
Durée : 01/05-36/06/2010 (2 mois), Paris Ouest Nanterre
TA Hoang Anh
Organisme : Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI, VAAS)
Sujet : Emergent rice viruses in Vietnam, UMR 186 RPB
Coordinateur IRD : Eugénie Hébrard
Durée : 12 mois, 2 mois (2009) ; 3 mois (2010) ; 3 mois (2011) ; 4 mois (2012)
CHU Van Thuoc
Organisme : Institut de l'Environnement et des Ressources Marines de Hai Phong (IMER/VAST)
Sujet : Taxonomie du phytoplancton, ecologie algale (efflorescences toxiques), isolement et cultures de phytoplancton, UR 103 CAMELIA
Coordinateur IRD : Jean-Pascal Torréton
Durée : 3 mois en 2008-2009, Montpellier, ECOLAG